WHAT CAUSES INFECTIONS TO SUBSIDE FOR AWHILE AND THEN REAPPEAR?

Bacterial and fungal biofilms might be to blame.

Biofilms are formations that occur when a group of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses attach themselves to a surface and create a colony. A biofilm is formed and maintained via cell-to-cell communication. A biofilm first forms when one or a few cells attach to a surface. These first cells produce proteins that act as signals to nearby cells. The signals are detected by neighboring cells and essentially recruit new cells into the colony. As the nearby cells detect the chemical cues they aggregate and begin to form the biofilm. These cells then send out additional signals, recruiting more cells to the colony and growing the biofilm. The proteins also signal the development of polysaccharides that will form the slime layer. This slime layer forms over and around the growing colony.These biofilms form themselves into a type of ‘shield’ that has a glue-like consistency, often referred to as ‘slime’. Biofilms then act as a barrier and help the colony to defend itself against antimicrobial treatments and our immune cells.
Biofilms can be the reason that some wounds may be difficult to heal, and why persistent infections may keep recurring. 

 

WHERE ARE BIOFILMS FOUND?
A biofilm colony secretes material that provides a structural matrix, similar to cement. These structures can adhere to surfaces such as the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, (The GI tract is an ideal environment for bacteria, fungi, and associated biofilms because of its huge surface area and constant influx of nutrients. For protection, the GI epithelium is lined with viscoelastic mucus, but it can be damaged in patients with excessive inflammation, irritable bowl disease, and other conditions. This creates an opportunity for bacteria to attach to the surface and begin their biofilm construction. The epithelium to which it is attached is altered and often damaged) urinary tract, respiratory system, heart, mouth (including the teeth), sex organs, eyes, the middle ear and skin.
Biofilms can also form on medical materials such as catheters, joint replacements, heart valves and they commonly occur in hospital environments.

BIOFILMS ARE GOOD AT ‘HIDING’ MICROBES
Up to 80% of infections in the body affecting the body systems mentioned above are associated with biofilm formation. Once formed, these biofilms can make it challenging for antimicrobial treatments to penetrate the biofilm. A microbial biofilm is continuously changing, stimulating inflammation, and acting as an obstacle for the action of the immune system. These types of persistent infections may be correlated to a range of health complaints including middle ear infections, urinary tract infections, gastro-intestinal infections, fungal overgrowth (candida) and more. Antibiotics cause massive damage to your gut and mitochondria. They should be your last resort for dealing with an infection. But sometimes antibiotics really are the best course of action, and at those times, serrapeptase benefits you by making antibiotics more effective. It weakens the biofilms around antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making them more susceptible to antibiotics.

VIRUSES HELP FORM BIOFILMS

Bacteria frequently grow in communities called biofilms, which are aggregates of cells and polymers. An example of a biofilm is the dental plaque on your teeth. Biofilms are medically important as they can allow bacteria to persist in host tissues and on catheters, and confer increased resistance to antibiotics and desiccation. Therefore understanding how biofilms form is crucial for controlling microbial infections. An advance in our understanding of biofilms formation is the observation that filamentous phages help them assemble, and contribute to their fundamental properties.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen which is a particular problem in patients with cystic fibrosis. The ability of this bacterium to form biofilms in the lung is linked to its ability to cause chronic infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms contain large numbers of filamentous Pf bacteriophages. These viruses lyse cells and release DNA, which becomes one component of the biofilm matrix.

Mixing supernatants of P. aeruginosa cultures with hyaluronan, which is present in airways of cystic fibrosis patients, resulted in the formation of a biofilm – in the absence of bacteria. A major component of P. aeruginosa biofilms was found to be Pf bacteriophages. When purifed Pf bacteriophages were mixed with hyaluronan, biofilms formed. Similar biofilms also formed when the filamentous bacteriophage fd of E. coli was mixed with hyaluronan. Mixtures of Pf bacteriophages and various polymers (alginate, DNA, hyaluronan, polyethylene glycol) formed liquid crystals (matter in a state between a liquid and a solid crystal).

Pf phages were detected in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis, but not in uninfected patients. Addition of Pf phage to sputum from patients infected with P. aeruginosa made the samples more birefringent, a property of liquid crystals. Compared with a strain of P. aeruginosa that does not produce Pf phage, colonies of virus-producing strains formed liquid crystals. These observations indicate that Pf phage help organize the bacteria into a biofilm matrix.

Some features of biofilms include their ability to adhere to surfaces, to protect bacteria from desiccation, and to increase resistance to antibiotics. Addition of phage Pf increased biofilm adhesion and tolerance against dessication. Such addition also made the biofilm more resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics, because these were sequestered in the biofilm. No phage-mediated increased resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed, probably because this antimicrobial does not interact with polyanions of the biofilm as do aminoglycosides.

These results show that presence of bacteriophage in a biofilm of P. aeruginosa helps organize the matrix while contributing to some of its fundamental properties. It seems likely that filamentous phages of other bacteria will play roles in biofilm formation, suggesting that targeting the phages in these matrices could be effective strategies for treating biofilm infections.

 

Serra-Fast Capsules in the removal of Biofilm.
Serra-Fast contains the following ingredients which are effective in removing and controlling Biofilm.
Serrapeptase

Serrapeptase decreases the risk of bacterial infections. In a so-called biofilm, bacteria can join together to form a protective barrier around their group. This biofilm acts as a shield against antibiotics, allowing bacteria to grow rapidly and cause infection. Serrapeptase is a strong antimicrobial. It weakens biofilms around antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can make it a great way to get rid of pathogens.

Research has suggested that serrapeptase improves the efficacy of antibiotics in treating Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections.

Studies have shown that antibiotics were more effective when combined with serrapeptase in treating S. aureus than antibiotic treatment alone. What’s more, the combination of serrapeptase and antibiotics was also effective in treating infections that had become resistant to the effects of antibiotics.

Several other studies and reviews have suggested that serrapeptase in combination with antibiotics may be a good strategy to reduce or stop the progression of infection — especially from antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

 

Antibiotics cause massive damage to your gut and mitochondria. They should be your last resort for dealing with an infection. But sometimes antibiotics really are the best course of action, and at those times, serrapeptase benefits you by making antibiotics more effective. It weakens the biofilms around antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making them more susceptible to antibiotics. For bacteria that create protein-dependent biofilms, it appears that serrapeptase may have an inhibitory effect on biofilm production.

Brahmi
In a study to evaluate the antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities of Brahmi against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are known to form biofilms as one of their virulence traits. Bacoside A showed antimicrobial activity against both test organisms in their planktonic and biofilm states and significantly removed 88%-93% of bacterial biofilm developed on microtiter plates. These results indicate that Brahmi might be considered as an antimicrobial having the ability to disrupt biofilms and could be useful to treat biofilm-related infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

 

Curcumin
A 2014 study review acknowledged curcumin as an effective anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, as well as anti-parasitic. On top of the anti-pathogen benefits, curcumin has also been deemed significantly effective at disrupting biofilm. 
Another 2013 study found that out of 35 different compounds observed, curcumin landed itself as one of the top six biofilm-disrupting agents.

 

MSM
Helps the body dispose of the biofilm.